A capacitor is an electrical component that stores a quantity of electrical charge defined with a linear relationship as Q=CxV.
Usually values are indicated in a smaller unit called micro Farad [µF] that is one million times smaller. An aluminium electrolytic capacitor is composed of one anode of aluminium foil having a dielectric oxidation on its surface, with semiconductor characteristics to prevent the current flow in one direction, and another aluminium foil cathode. There is also an electrolyte impregnated paper layer positioned between the anode and the cathode in order to avoid short circuits. Both the aluminium foils have been etched to obtain active surfaces, increasing their effective area. Aluminium tabs are then connected to the two foils to act as terminals.

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The rated capacitance, defined at 100 Hz and 20°C, is the capacitance of an equivalent circuit having capacitance and resistance series connected. The value is indicated on the external sleeve, specified in micro Farads [µF].
Typical curves for capacitance drift versus temperature and frequency, are shown in fig.1 e fig.2

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Safety | Handling Terminals: Always be sure that a capacitor is totally discharged before handling it. To avoid any damage, don’t overstress terminations during cutting, soldering or bending. If gas is detected while the product is in use, turn off the main power supply and unplug it.
Liquid Leakage: In case of activation of the safety vent, hot gas exceeding 100 °C will escape. Do not place your face in close proximity to the vent and avoid proximity to areas exposed to the gas. When an escape of electrolyte has occurred, wash the affected area with hot water. Use rubber gloves to avoid skin contact. Any contact with eyes should be immediately irrigated with water and medical advise is sought.

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View the manufacturing control flow

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BEFORE CAPACITORS INSTALLATION: Kendeil reccomends to follow below steps, please read the following information carefully:
  • • Prior to handling a capacitor be sure it is totally discharged.
  • • Check the specifications of the capacitors and compare them with the project’s specifications.
  • • Do not reverse the polarity.
  • • Do not use a capacitor where reverse voltage is applied.
  • • Do not drop or otherwise impact a capacitor to avoid decline in its electric performances.
  • • Do not use any capacitor whose packaging has a noticeable abnormality on delivery.
  • • Do not deform the shape of the capacitor, this could lead major failures such as liquid leakage or short circuit.
Not taking these precautions could lead to a major failure.

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With the advancements in aluminium electrolytic capacitor technology, the capacitors used in equipments must have a very long life characteristics and must operate even under severe conditions. A careful choice of a capacitor for a particular application and an adequate installation in the circuit will assure a good service life. In any case any component will eventually fail, usually this occurs due to a slow, steady drift of parameters called wear-out; sometimes there is a sharp change in capacitor properties also called catastrophic failure. In general terms the failure rate of aluminium electrolytic capacitors follows a bathtub curve with time as shown here.

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POLARITY In DC applications polarity is required; if polarity is reversed, the circuit life will be shortened or the capacitor may be damaged. Generally, an intermittent reverse voltage of 1V DC is allowed. If during operation, it is possible that polarity could be reversed or unknown, extensive use of a bipolar capacitor is required.
Charge - Discharge Duty and High Peak-to-Peak Voltage Charge - Discharge application can generate overheating or overpressure effects on electrolytic capacitors and reduce performances and life. Custom capacitor solutions designed for these specific uses are required, contact us to select the most appropriate item. Kendeil aluminium electrolytic capacitors are suitable for circuits in which a charge and discharge cycle is requested. The frequent cycles due to a charge or discharge operation could take some drop of capacitance value. In general one million of switching with rated voltage one cycle for second a time costant of 0.1 carries an overall capacitance decrease less then 10%.

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The typical useful life represents a period of time until the end of life of the capacitor. The end is caused by different incidents (or different failure modes) such as the following:
MECHANICAL FAILURES | Operation of safety vent due to overpressure, splitting of PVC sleeve and damaged insulation, unusable terminals, external short circuiting of terminals due to spilling of electrolyte.
OVER FAILURES | When a short or open circuit occurs.

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